Congratulations to Saminda Fernando, who presented an excellent defence of his dissertation this morning in Sri Lanka. The examining committee was unanimously impressed with Saminda’s presentation and dissertation, titled “Barriers to gene flow and the resulting endemism in an island endemic: phenotypic divergence and genetic introgression in Dinopium flamebacks of Sri Lanka.” Saminda’s main advisor is Dr. Sampath Seneviratne, who was a postdoc in the Irwin lab Senior Lecturer at the University of Colombo; and I serve as co-advisor.
During this time of COVID19, the defence was conducted over Zoom, which had the added benefit of making it easy for me to “attend.” Below are some photos from the defence:
And here is a photo from when Saminda worked with us here in Vancouver for several months in 2016:
We all wish Dr. Fernando a very warm CONGRATULATIONS!!
If you would like to read more about Saminda’s work, see:
I have been committed to promoting equality and diversity in science and society in general for many years. My personality leads me to do this in a rather quiet way, focusing on calmly promoting diversity through hiring, student admissions, inclusive teaching, and occasionally participating in marches or protests. The recent events in the USA, with the profoundly racist Federal administration, widespread police brutality against non-violent protesters, and the abundant evidence of widespread and possibly worsening racism, have convinced me that this quiet approach is no longer appropriate (full confession: it never was). I am now striving not only to be non-racist but to more importantly be actively and vocally anti-racist (as well as anti-sexist, etc.).
As a biologist, birder, and biodiversity scientist, I now recognize that I have had an advantage due to my skin color as well as my gender: I have been able to travel widely across Canada, the USA, and many other countries without fear that I would be judged as suspicious due solely to my physical appearance. This is not the case for many many people, and I feel it is the responsibility of those of us with that privilege to recognize this fact and work to change it. I also recognize that I have much to learn about the experiences that other people have had. Hence, one thing I have been focusing on in the last week is listening carefully.
We often have discussions and initiatives within academia about promoting diversity in our hiring, student recruitment, and teaching. These are all important efforts that I fully support, and they should continue. I think the past week of protests in the USA and elsewhere have raised the importance of working even more broadly. Many of us are attracted into careers in biology due to early experiences out in nature. If many people do not have the same ability to go out into nature due to their skin color or gender, that is something that we need to recognize and work to change.
Many of us have watched in horror during the past week at some of the events in the USA, and we have wondered how we individually can improve things (both internationally and within Canada and Vancouver, for we of course have related issues here). For me, it has been a wonderful experience to follow an amazing and self-organized group of biologists organized under the Twitter hashtags #BirdingWhileBlack, #BlackBirdersWeek, and under the name @BlackAFinSTEM. For a short introduction to the motivation behind this group, please see this video by Corina Newsome. This group is effecting real change by educating the world about these problems while also doing so in a way that celebrates diversity, inclusivity, positivity, and amazing stories of birds and other biodiversity. I applaud their efforts, and I am doing my best to listen carefully and do my part in amplifying their important message. I encourage you to check them out.
Yesterday, this inspiring group organized two discussion groups that make for equally sobering and inspiring viewing. It breaks my heart to hear of their experiences dealing with racism and how they have to avoid many areas that white birders don’t hesitate to go to. But my overall feeling listening to this group is one of inspiration: to approach life with courage, to embrace your own identity, to stand up for what you believe in, to display good humour and an open heart, and (perhaps most importantly 😉 ) to love birds! I think we all can learn much from these wise people.
Darren’s simulation study of the effects of assortative mating and low hybrid fitness on hybrid zones was published this week in The American Naturalist.
The citation: Irwin, D.E. 2020. Assortative mating in hybrid zones is remarkably ineffective in promoting speciation. American Naturalist, published online May 4, 2020: Link (earlier version posted on bioRxiv: Link )
The Abstract: Partial prezygotic isolation is often viewed as more important than partial postzygotic isolation (low fitness of hybrids) early in the process of speciation. I simulate secondary contact between two populations (species) to examine effects of assortative mating and low hybrid fitness in preventing blending. A small reduction in hybrid fitness (e.g., by 10%) produces a narrower hybrid zone than a strong but imperfect mating preference (e.g., 10 times stronger preference for conspecific over heterospecific mates). In the latter case, rare F1 hybrids find each other attractive (due to assortative mating), leading to the buildup of a continuum of intermediates. The weakness of assortative mating compared with reduced fitness of hybrids in preventing blending is robust to varying genetic bases of these traits. Assortative mating is most powerful in limiting blending when it is encoded by a single locus or is essentially complete, or when there is a large mate search cost. In these cases assortative mating is likely to cause hybrids to have low fitness, due to frequency-dependent mating disadvantage of individuals of rare mating types. These results prompt a questioning of the concept of partial prezygotic isolation, since it is not very isolating unless there is also postzygotic isolation.
Congratulations to Silu Wang, who has published her first paper on the Townsend’s / Hermit Warbler hybrid zone, showing surprising stability of the zone over a period of 25 years.
Silu and I are grateful to coauthor Sievert Rohwer, who collaborated on this project and allowed access to his many samples of warbler tissues from the 1987-1994 time period. We also thank coauthor Kira Delmore for her contributions to the genomic analysis.
Here is Silu’s painting inspired by the hybrid zone:
The full citation: Wang, S., S. Rohwer, K. Delmore, and D.E. Irwin. Cross-decades stability of an avian hybrid zone. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 32: 1242-1251. Link
The Abstract: Hybrid zones are particularly valuable for understanding the evolution of partial reproductive isolation between differentiated populations. An increasing number of hybrid zones have been inferred to move over time, but in most such cases zone movement has not been tested with long‐term genomic data. The hybrid zone between Townsend’s Warblers (Setophaga townsendi) and Hermit Warblers (S. occidentalis) in the Washington Cascades was previously inferred to be moving from northern S. townsendi southwards towards S. occidentalis, based on plumage and behavioural patterns as well as a 2000‐km genetic wake of hermit mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in coastal Townsend’s Warblers. We directly tested whether hybrid zone position has changed over 2–3 decades by tracking plumage, mtDNA and nuclear genomic variation across the hybrid zone over two sampling periods (1987–94 and 2015–16). Surprisingly, there was no significant movement in genomic or plumage cline centres between the two time periods. Plumage cline widths were narrower than expected by neutral diffusion, consistent with a ‘tension zone’ model, in which selection against hybrids is balanced by movement of parental forms into the zone. Our results indicate that this hybrid zone is either stable in its location or moving at a rate that is not detectable over 2–3 decades. Despite considerable gene flow, the stable clines in multiple phenotypic and genotypic characters over decades suggest evolutionary stability of this young pair of sister species, allowing divergence to continue. We propose a novel biogeographic scenario to explain these patterns: rather than the hybrid zone having moved thousands of kilometres to its current position, inland Townsend’s met coastal Hermit Warbler populations along a broad front of the British Columbia and Alaska coast and hybridization led to replacement of the Hermit Warbler plumage with Townsend’s Warbler plumage patterns along this coastline. Hence, hybrid zones along British Columbia and Alaska moved only a short distance from the inland to the coast, whereas the Hermit Warbler phenotype appears stable in Washington and further south. This case provides an example of the complex biogeographic processes that have led to the distribution of current phenotypes within and among closely related species.
Jamie Clarke, an undergraduate researcher in our group, teamed up with a reporter from Trek Magazine, Rachel Glassman, to write an article about Jamie’s summer research on sapsuckers. Jamie worked closely with PhD student Libby Natola on a study of 3 species of hybridizing sapsuckers (Red-breasted, Red-naped, and Yellow-bellied Sapsuckers) in central British Columbia.
On February 10th, we had a great time snowshoeing at Cypress Mountain. As a very experienced snowshoer, Silu led the way. Rashika in particular had fun, as it was her first time experiencing snow. And Maddie was enthusiastic, sort of a pre-celebration of her upcoming and now very successful MSc defence. Libby, Kenny, Ellen and I all had fun too.
Congrats to Madelyn (“Maddie”) Ore for her excellent M.Sc. defence! Maddie’s thesis is titled “Geographic variation in song and genetics in the Townsend’s Warbler (Setophaga townsendi).” Maddie defended her thesis on March 1, and will be entering the Ph.D. program at Cornell University in September 2019.