Thomas C. Wanger, Fabrice DeClerck, Lucas A. Garibaldi, Jaboury Ghazoul, David Kleijn, Alexandra-Maria Klein, Claire Kremen, Harold Mooney, Ivette Perfecto, Luke L. Powell, Josef Settele, Mirco Solé, Teja Tscharntke & Wolfgang Weisser. 2020. Integrating agroecological production in a robust post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework. Nature Ecology & Evolution
To the Editor — The 15th Conference of the Parties (COP) meeting to the Convention on Biological Diversity in China — now to be held in 2021 due to the coronavirus pandemic — will provide new opportunities for biodiversity conservation (https://go.nature.com/31YAVNF) through the decision on the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF). In short, the GBF is a global and solution-oriented framework aiming for transformative action by governments, civil society and businesses, to help biodiversity recover for the benefit of people and planet1. Agriculture is the most extensive form of land use, occupying more than one-third of the global landmass, and imperilling 62% of all threatened species globally2. Habitat conversion and conventional farming practices — including heavy use of agrochemicals — have negative effects on biodiversity3, even spilling into protected areas. However, if designed appropriately, agricultural landscapes can provide habitats for biodiversity, promote connectivity between protected areas, and increase the capacity of species to respond to environmental threats4,5. While halting the loss of protected and intact nature is essential to halt species loss, bending the curve on biodiversity will require sustainable agriculture. We argue that the GBF must include conservation actions in agricultural landscapes based on agroecological principles (sensu High Level Panel of Experts6) in the three ‘2030 Action Targets’ (hereafter ‘Targets’) to reach its goals of biodiversity recovery. Agroecology is widely recognized as a necessary transformation in order to achieve food system sustainability.