Vertebrate Labs (BI 204)


Laboratory Schedule 2010

Lab 1: Protochordates, Overview of Vertebrate Phylogeny, Origin and Formation of Germ Layers.

Protochordates, vertebrate phylogeny and Embryology.  Models and demonstration slides of Amphioxus, Frog and Chick Development. Amphioxis and the Lamprey as a primitive adult.  Overview of the Protochordates and Vertebrates.

Lab 2: Integument and its Derivatives.

Demonstration material of keratin, glandular and dermal derivatives.  Models of bone, cartilage, tooth type, insertion and deposition. 

Lab 3: The Structure of the Skull in Vertebrates.

Bones of the neurocranium, dermocranium, and splanchnocranium.  Demonstrations of optic notch, temporal fossae, secondary palates and jaw suspension.  Classification of vertebrates by jaw suspension.  Loss of dermal bones through evolution.


Lab 4: Axial and Appendicular Skeleton Excluding Skull.

Demonstrations of the bone and cartilage.  Examples of young and old bone.   Types of vertebrae, regional specialization of vertebrae through the Vertebrates.   Sternum and pectoral girdles. Pelvic girdles.  Reference to mounted skeletons of Fish, Amphibia, Reptiles, Birds and Mammals.

Lab 5: External Anatomy & Muscular System.

The external anatomy and dissection of the muscular systems of a dogfish., mud puppy and rat. The dogfish eye will be examined in detail.

Lab 6: Muscular system continued

The muscular systems of the dogfish, mud puppy and rat will be continued this week


Lab 7: Digestive and the Urogenital System.

The digestive tract of a shark, mud puppy and rat is examined. A comparative table is required. Dissection of Rat, mud puppy and dogfish urogenital systems. A comparative table will be required..

Lab 8: Respiratory and Circulatory Systems, thoracic cavity.


Shark, mud puppy and rat dissection.  A table comparing the hearts and aortic arches is required

Lab 9: Circulatory System, abdominal cavity.


Blood flow to and from the body is examined in the shark, mud puppy and rat.

Lab 10: The Nervous System.

Dissection and comparison of sheep brain, mud puppy and dogfish brains. Evolution of the brain. Cranial nerves. A comparative brain table will be required.


All labs take place in Biosciences 2513 and 2517

September 13-17

September 20-24

September 27- October 21

October 4-8

October 11-15

October 25-29

Nov. 1- Nov. 5

November 8-12

November 15-19

November 22-26