Beaty Biodiversity Museum

University of British Columbia Herbarium

November 2002 Herbarium Paper


Table of Contents

Director's Message

--- from Fred Ganders

New Herbarium...

As many of you probably already know, the UBC Centre for Biodiversity Research was recently awarded a Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI) Grant of about $14,500,000, and also has appointed Dr. Wayne Maddison to a Senior Canada Research Chair (CRC) in Biodiversity, as professor of Zoology and Botany. What you may not be aware of are the implications of this for the UBC Herbarium. 

The UBC Herbarium is part of the UBC Centre for Biodiversity Research, as are the biodiversity collections of the Zoology Department. The CFI grant is for a building and research equipment for the Centre for Biodiversity Research, and this building is supposed to house all of these collections. The $14.5 million is supposed to be matched by the Provincial Government, and an additional $8 million or so has to be raised by the University. On May 30, I personally talked to President Martha Piper about this, and she assured me that despite Provincial cutbacks she was confident the Province would cough up the money, but that the harder part would be getting UBC's share. All evidence seems to indicate that fundraising for the building is one of the University's highest priorities, and within 5 years things should be starting to happen. What the Herbarium should get out of this is more space, new herbarium cases, new microscopes, computers, and other equipment. The current plan is for the new building to be just south of the where the Herbarium is now, replacing the huts. 

A final comment about the appointment of Dr. Wayne Maddison as CRC in Biodiversity: Dr. Maddison does research on jumping spiders but is best known to botanists for producing computer programs for phylogenetic analysis, such as MacClade, which he coauthored with his brother. MacClade is familiar to most botanists who do phylogenetic studies, and is probably one reason most phylogenists use Macintosh computers instead of those dratted PCs. Anyway, Dr, Maddison impressed everyone on the search committee, and I was especially impressed by his deep commitment to the importance of biodiversity collections such as the Herbarium. I am certain that his presence in the Centre for Biodiversity Research will help the UBC Herbarium get the attention it deserves at UBC.  The Herbarium, is, after all, by far the most actively used of the biodiversity collections in the Centre.

Herbarium People


Dr. Fred Ganders

Herbarium Committee

Fred Ganders
Mary Berbee
Michael Hawkes
Jeannette Whitton

Herbarium Manager

Olivia Lee 

Curators and Associate Curators

Wilf Schofield (Bryophytes)
Trevor Goward (Lichens)
Mary Berbee (Fungi)
Sandra Lindstrom (Algae)
Michael Hawkes (Algae)
Helen Kennedy (Vascular Plants)

Research and Faculty Associates:

Frank Lomer (Additions to the Flora of BC)
Brian Klinkenberg (E-FLORA BC)

Student Assistants

Gina Choe 
Zarah Martz 
Kim Ryall


Stephanie Chan (mounting)
Ling Leung (specimens)
Vanessa Pasqualetto (Eflora)
Rosemary Taylor (Eflora)

Regular Users:

Chris Sears
Terry McIntosh
Rose Klinkenberg


Grad Students researching in the Herbarium Department/faculty  Thesis Title/Subject Supervisor
Danielle Cobbaert  Botany, Laval Restoration of a Fen Plant Community after Peat Mining Line Rochfort (Laval) 
Gary Bradstreet , UBC liaison
Nick Page Institute for Resources and Environment  Regional and local patterns of exotic plant species in west coast beaches  Les Lavkulich
Karen Golinski Geography/School of Environmental Study, UVIC Classification and ecology of some BC mires, and distribution patterns of Sphagnum species ofsouthwestern BC. Nancy Turner/Mike Edgell
Natalie Griller Geography  Arctic Biogeography 
--Treeline dynamics in permafrost regions
Greg Henry
Stacey Thompson Botany The evolution of apomictic polyploidy in Townsendia (Asteraceae) Jeannette Whitton 
Linda Jennings 


Botany The distribution of genetic variation in the 
threatened species Townsendia aprica (Asteraceae)
Jeannette Whitton
 Patrik Inderbitzen Botany Evolution and diversity in fungi (Ascomycetes)  Mary Berbee 
Gary Lewis  Botany Vegetation and plant ecology of the serpentine soils of  B.C.  Gary Bradfield 


Herbarium News

Faculty of Science grants Botany $25,000 per year for two years for Biodiversity Curation

-- from Fred Ganders 

The Federal Government has provided money to universities for indirect costs (overhead) associated with research grants, such as Natural Sciences and Engingeering Research Council (NSERC) grants. The Faculty of Science received $571,000 for its indirect cost allocation for next year, much less than was hoped for. In discussion with the Heads of Departments, the Dean decided the highest priority for the money was technical support for multi-user facilities and  infrastructure that directly helped researchers. In order to get funding, multi-user facilities like the Herbarium must develop a plan to document how the funds have enhanced the level of research at UBC. The Dean of Science has augmented the funds received by $342,600, with the stipulation that funds also contribute to graduate and undergraduate education.  Other constraints have required a circuitous route for the transfer of funds, but the result is that the UBC Herbarium has been allocated $25,000 per year, more or less guaranteed for two years, for biodiversity curation. The hope is that these funds for indirect costs would continue after that, but there is no guarantee that that will happen. 

This amount of money is not enough to hire a full-time curator or collections manager. The Herbarium Committee decided that these funds will be used to hire a part-time curatorial technician for either vascular plants, algae, or fungi. We will begin advertising for the position as soon as possible. 

The Herbarium desperately needs funds for employment of curatorial assistants. At present, Olivia Lee is the only paid technician, whereas in the 1970's the Herbarium had three full-time technicians, and the Herbarium was much smaller then. Nevertheless, this is a positive sign that the University is recognizing the significance of biodiversity and biodiversity collections, and the need to support them.

Type specimen fire proof safe

Kent M. Brothers of North Vancouver has donated $1,000 to the Herbarium Fund specifically for herbarium cases. Matched funds from his employer, Creo, make for a total of $2,000. Our greatest immediate need is for a fire resistant case for our type specimens, which are nomenclaturally the most valuable specimens we have. So we are using this donation for this purpose. Assistant curator of Algae Dr. Sandra Lindstrom investigated availability of such cases, and discovered that what we really want is a two-hour fire safe, which she saw being used for type specimens in Japan. The remainder of the cost will be paid from the donation from the estate of Mr. Philip James Salisbury, which we received two years ago. Our type safe will house types from our algal, fungal, lichen, bryophyte, and vascular plant collections.  Kent is a botanist with interest in fungi, bryophytes, and lichens. 

New Books for the Herbarium

Thanks to donations to the Herbarium Fund earmarked specifically for books from Brian Klinkenberg ($200) and Olivia Lee ($300), we will be able to add a few new volumes to our shelves. A list of possible purchases is being compiled, and will be purchased as soon as possible. These funds have come through work done on plant identification for the Peace River Biophysical Project headed by Michael Church in Geography. 

Vouchering the Hortus Botanicus at Nong Nooch Tropical Garden, Thailand

--from Fred Ganders 

Canada ratified the Convention on Biological Diversity negotiated at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, pledging to identify, monitor, and conserve biodiversity. Canada also agreed to provide expertise to less developed countries to help conserve their biodiversity. It is not apparent that Canada has done much in this regard in the last decade. One of the five areas essential to Trek 2000, the University of British Columbia's plan for the 21st Century, is Internationalization. One of the goals of the UBC Herbarium is to use the expertise we have. We are probably the most active institution in Canada in the field of tropical plant taxonomy. So we want to expand international cooperation and the international significance of the UBC Herbarium, as part of the Herbarium's Trek 2000 plan. We want to be an international rather than just a regional herbarium. 

Last December, on the way to our traditional Christmas vacation destination of Phuket, Thailand, Helen Kennedy, curator of vascular plants, and I were guests of the Nong Nooch Tropical Garden near Pattaya, Thailand. They gave us VIP treatment; they even met us at Bangkok International airport where we bypassed immigration and customs while they took care of all that. Nong Nooch Tropical Garden has connections. 

Nong Nooch Tropical Garden is a 520 acre privately owned botanical garden catering primarily to Asian and Russian tourists, with relatively few visitors from western Europe or North America. Their display gardens are remarkable, and, to us, rather curious. There is a huge formal "French Garden", about two football fields long, with tropical plants grafted and pruned to look like conifers and boxwood, a "European Garden" with fountains, and a Stonehenge replica. To tourists who live in the tropics, these classical European style gardens are exotic and interesting. This, the butterfly house, performing elephant shows, Thai dance exhibitions, and sleepy looking tigers to pet, are all set among the most complete palm collection in the world. (We didn't have time for shows but we did pet tigers - their fur is coarse and stiff, not at all like a housecat.) 

However, the most remarkable thing about Nong Nooch is their Hortus Botanicus. It is not open to the public, but is a scientific, conservation, and horticultural resource collection. It specializes in the most complete living collections of selected families of tropical plants, including palms, cycads, and the ginger order Zingiberales, which includes gingers, bananas, Heliconias, and, of course, the prayer plants, Marantaceae, which is why they invited Helen to visit.They have, for example, over 1,100 species of palms and all known cycads except for six species, and they are working on getting those. These collections will be of great value to scientific researchers around the world, as well as to conservation and horticulture. 

The UBC Herbarium, a world leader in Marantaceae research, is planning to cooperate with Nong Nooch to document their living collections with herbarium specimens that will serve as vouchers for any research conducted on their collection. UBC Herbarium expeditions will also add to their living collection of prayer plants. This cooperative project will also train Thai plant collectors to make the voucher specimens. Researchers working on Hortus Botanicus plants, for example, extracting DNA for phylogenetic studies, or phytochemicals, or counting chromosome numbers, would not need to make additional voucher specimen because the plant would already be vouchered in the UBC Herbarium. This will save researchers time, and protect the plants because fewer specimens would have to be made from each one. It will also make access to all of the vouchers available in one herbarium, and link all of the various studies done on the same living plant to one specimen. All of the herbarium specimen label data will be on our herbarium internet database, making it searchable by anyone. 

Vouchering the Hortus Botanicus at Nong Nooch Tropical Garden will make their collections much more valuable to international taxonomic researchers. It will add to our herbarium what will become a most important collection of tropical voucher specimens, as more and more research is conducted using their plants. The UBC Herbarium will have the best tropical collections in Canada. 

Other news.....

Herbarium people have been active in the last year, both in research and in public outreach.

Wilf Schofield led off the International Bog Day Festival at the Richmond Nature Park  in July 2002 with his opening lecture on "The Importance of Being a Bog." He also spent an envious week collecting mosses in the Queen Charlottes with Shona Ellis, and, last fall, gave a lecture on bryophytes to the Richmond Nature Park Society, drawing a crowd in spite of a snowstorm! Recent field work has been in Alaska and Washington State.

Olivia Lee spent 3 weeks in Yunnan Province in spring 2002 on a Lichen and Bryophyte collecting trip that is a (personal) follow-up to her trip a few years ago that was partly funded by the Department of Botany, UBC and partly by Bruce McKunne at the University of Oregon.

Fred Ganders gave a lecture on the Flora of the Fraser Valley to the Richmond Nature Park Society, and to the Vancouver Natural History Society.

Sandra Lindstrom gave a lecture to the Vancouver Natural History Society on the algae of the Pacific Northwest.

Brian Klinkenberg, Rose Klinkenberg and Chris Sears are working on three new Committee on the Status of Engangered Wildife in Canada (COSEWIC) status reports on plants in the Okanagan: Eleocharis atropurpureus, Aster frondosus, and Astragalus spaldingii var. spaldingii. Chris Sears is also undertaking a preliminary review of Bidens tripartita in North America and Europe.

Danielle Cobbaert has won the first place presentation award at the International Peat Society Conference, Parnu, Estonia.

Kim Ryall Over the last year, Kim worked extensively on moss records from the Queen Charlotte Islands. Now she's off to start her PhD. Originally from Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, Kim completed a Bachelor of Arts in English Literature at UBC in May, 1997, and a Bachelor's degree in Biology in May 2001. She will be joining the Department of Biology at Duke University to pursue her doctorate in Botany. Kim received a Canadian NSERC grant to support her graduate work at Duke, and also received two of Duke's highly competitive fellowships: the James B. Duke Award, and the University Scholars Award.

Terry McIntosh is working on several key projects: seven COSEWIC status reports on nationally rare mosses; identifying a variety of arid land mosses and lichens from the Hanford Reach National Monument in Washington State, representative vouchers will be deposited at UBC; preparation of descriptions and species keys of two moss genera (Ceratodon and Physcomitrium) for the Bryophyte Flora of North America project.

Wilf, Karen, Nick, Chris, Danielle, Rose and Brian are also volunteering their time to conduct a detailed biophysical inventory of the Lulu Island Bog in Richmond, along with many other expert volunteers. The inventory will cover plant communities, flora and fauna, and includes such groups as vascular plants, fungi, lichens, dragonflies, aquatic insects, flies, butterflies, moths, reptiles and amphibians, small mammals. Detailed information is also being gathered on the hydrology of the site, and on local precipitation.

From the Curators

Wilf Schofield 

V. J. Krajina initiated the bryophyte and lichen herbaria at the University of British Columbia. It was mainly a repository for voucher specimens to document his ecological studies, and those of his students. In 1960, this collection numbered approximately 2,000 specimens. Through intensive field work, especially in British Columbia, by W. B. Schofield and his graduate students, the collection grew rapidly in succeeding years. This research was supported by modest grants from NSERC. 

Also during the 1960's-1980's, G. F. Otto, an enthusiastic amateur lichenologist considerably enriched and improved the lichen collections. From 1980 onward, Trevor Goward has vastly improved the lichen holdings, making the collection a major resource in North America. 

The herbaria have been considerably enriched by an active international exchange programme. The exsiccata (a set of herbarium specimens distributed to other herbaria), Bryophyta Canadensia, has been especially significant. 

The bryophyte and lichen specimens are dominated by those from British Columbia. For bryophytes, however, western North America from northern Alaska to southernmost California and Arizona are comprehensively represented. Added to these are holdings from Australia, New Zealand, Japan and Europe in particular. Canadian holdings are especially strong for the eastern provinces, including the Martimes and Newfoundland.

Gift collections from Stanford University, the Vancouver City Museum and The Royal BC Museum are of considerable importance in their contribution of historically significant collections. The collections made by John Macoun after his retirement on Vancouver Island are especially noteworthy.

By 2002, the bryophyte herbarium numbers 240,000 accessioned specimens as well as 38,000 accessioned specimens of lichens. This makes this herbarium the second largest holding of these organisms in Canada and the only collection that continues to be enlarged annually.

In 1997, a fund was established through the Vancouver Foundation, designed to provide annual support for the bryophyte and lichen herbaria. This has been provided to graduate and undergraduate students in support of their research as well as to aid in the accessioning and database entry for the collection.

Trevor Goward 

Trevor reports having made intensive lichenological surveys of several key inland rainforests in the Revelstoke - Mica Dam area: probably about 1,000 specimens of macros and crusts, which will come to UBC eventually.

He is now putting the finishing touches on the first volume of "Ways of Enlichenment", which provides keys for all and discussions for a majority of about 670 macrolichens occurring in northwest North America south to San Francisco, east to the Rockies, and north to the Arctic Ocean. He has also spent about a month this summer in Norway, and will be adding about 500 specimens from there: a few of them apparently new species to science.

Sandra Lindstrom

Herbaria are repositories for type specimens, the material on which species names are based and to which the names are irrevocably attached. UBC herbarium is such a repository.

There are actually different types of types. A holotype is the single specimen designated by the author of the species name as representing the species. (However, it is not necessarily representative or typical.) Isotypes are other specimens from the same collection (same place, date and collector) as the holotype. Isotypes are often distributed to other herbaria for safe-keeping and making the specimens available to a wider group of people. The UBC herbarium contains both holotypes and isotypes: 23 holotypes and 85 isotypes of algae, 7 holotypes and 66 isotypes of bryophytes, 8 holotypes and 13 isotypes of lichens, 8 holotypes of fungi, and 3 holotypes and 30 isotypes of vascular plants.

There are other types of types as well: lectotypes, paratypes, and topotypes, and some of these can also be found in the UBC collections.

Because of their importance to taxonomy, types are usually kept in a special cabinet from the remaining collection. This keeps them from undo disturbance. Moreover, the cabinet is usually fireproof, providing an additional degree of safety for this material.

As noted above, the UBC herbarium is especially rich in algal types. The northeast Pacific marine environment is very diverse, and many new species of seaweeds have been described from northern Washington, British Columbia and Alaska. Data from some of these specimens and from other types of species reported to occur in Alaska are being collated into a database that is now a part of the UBC herbarium database. This database is part of a project to inventory Alaskan seaweeds[1] and is available on the web at.
This website was put together with the help of Dave Carmean.

We have examined types of over 375 species and have images of over 340 types. These include 14 types from UBC, 20 from the British Museum (London), 23 from the Museum of Evolution (Uppsala University), 65 from the Botanical Museum (Lund), 84 from the University of California (Berkeley), and 94 from the Komarov Botanical Institute (St. Petersburg), among institutions holding holotypes of North Pacific species. Below we provide an example of the kind of information included in the Algal Types Database:
Type name Orculifilum denticulatum
Current name Orculifilum denticulatum
Authority S. C. Lindstrom
Date of publication 1987
Page 131
Figures Figs 1-13
Type locality Coghlan Island, Auke Bay, Alaska
Date of collection 13 June 1974
Collector  S. C. Lindstrom
Collector number Auke Bay Laboratory 278
Herbarium UBC
Specimen number A67496
Type status Holotype
Image yes 

Mary Berbee

Congratulations to Curator of Fungi Dr. Mary Berbee, who won a Killam Teaching Prize for her innovative undergraduate teaching. She has donated the $5,000 prize, matched by the Faculty of Science and the Department of Botany, and hopefully to be matched by Zoology, to set up a fund to offer a "Botany and Zoology Student Research Award" for undergraduate research projects.

From the Research and Faculty Associates


Brian Klinkenberg and Fred Ganders, have begun work on E-FLORA BC. This new intiative is a joint project of the UBC Herbarium, the Native Plant Society of BC, and the Department of Geography, UBC. The aim is to develop a cooperative interactive on-line atlas of the vascular plants of British Columbia that would contain at least the following information for each species:

• distribution information/mapping/label data
• taxonomy and nomenclature
• species photographs and descriptions
• ecological information
• conservation information
• tips on cultivation
• medicinal use
• important literature references
• links to other relevant online materials (eg., Calflora)
• other info

The project is a resurrection of the atlas idea originally put forward several years ago by the native plant society, and in which interest continues. It also combines recent herbarium initiatives to place the herbarium database interactively on-line.

Initially, the UBC Herbarium Database will form the core of the project. Phase One of this project, which is primarily computer based, is now underway in Brian's lab in Geography. During this phase, they will:

• develop the parameters for the project (e.g., explicitly deciding upon what type of information should be included in the databases and on the web pages, what other online sites should be linked to);
• decide upon the look and feel of the project pages (e.g., should the pages follow the model used in Calflora [a single page with all of the information on it] or follow the model used in Florida [multiple pages, each containing an integrated ‘parcel’ of information]), and create some prototype project pages;
• complete initial internet mapping software programming–the development of the interactive map page (by BCIT students);
• assess the UBC Herbarium database; and
• select and work with a pilot plant group.

To date, graduate student Laura Cotton, working under the supervision of Brian Klinkenberg, has prepared some preliminary pages in which various aspects of the project have been outlined and links to existing plant atlases have been made. ( In addition, a sample information page has been developed and additional critical database links have been compiled.

Some initial funding has been provided by the UBC Herbarium Fund ($800) for upgrading a computer (providing additional memory and processing power) so it can handle the internet mapping software needed to eventually drive the atlas, and which is integral to the project. Additional matching funds ($800) for the computer upgrade have also been provided by Brian Klinkenberg. This will allow work on the database to begin, and will support the computer programming needs of the project in Phase One.

In addition, the Vancouver Orchid Society has just approved a donation to the Eflora Project for $3,200 for the purchase of computer hardware for data management.

Two BCIT students have volunteered their student project time to work on EFlora next spring (as part of their degree requirements), and they will be working on computer programming (working with internet mapping software in order to develop the interactive map page) for the project. That is, while we will use existing internet mapping software (worth something in the order of $30,000 if we were to purchase it commercially), there is still a fair bit of programming effort required in order to actually produce E-Flora BC-specific maps, and these students will tackle some of that. Funds are now being sought to aid in the computer programming.

Upon completion of Phase One of the project by the middle to the end of 2003, production of the full E-Flora project would commence (i.e., incorporating the entire UBC Herbarium database, developing the image bank, collection of the literature, etc.). Phase Two of the project will be a multi-year undertaking, and will require both a considerable contribution of volunteer time and additional funding.

The first step in Phase Two will be the development of a pilot project on the Orchids of BC. Work has begun in preparation for this, and volunteers are working in the Herbarium and in the Department of Geography on data entry and specimen annotation. Our volunteers include Vanessa Pasqualetto, Chris Sears and Rosemary Taylor.


Frank Lomer continues to work on additions to the flora of BC, and has added several new species for the province in 2002:
Trifolium glomeratum L. A European species found near the Oak Bay Marina. Possibly the first BC collection.
Verbascum nigrum L. Found along Hwy 1 and 248 St in Langley. Possibly the first collection in BC.
Lepidium ruderale L A Europe species found on a vacant lot near Hwy 3 in Princeton This has been collected a few times before in New West and Surrey, but this time will be included in his list of new plants to be added eventually to the Flora of BC.
Rumex sanguineus L. A European species found near Swartz Bay. It also grows on the Gulf Islands. This species will probably also be added to the Flora of BC.
Epilobium obscurum Schreber A European species found by a gas station on Canada Way in Burnaby. Specimens of previous collections were sent to Peter Hoch in Missouri. He said these are not the first collection from North America but our populations are the only ones he knows of that are established.

Herbarium Visitors and Clients

Thanks to the Bryophyte Fund, UBC Herbarium was fortunate to have Dr. Jim Dickson, Archaeo- Botanist from the University of Glasgow, spend some time in the Herbarium as a visiting researcher in 2002. Dr. Dickson is investigating the BC Iceman (Long Ago Person Found) in cooperation with Dr. Richard Hebda at the Royal British Columbia Museum.

In cooperation with Jim Dickson, Dr. Peta J. Mudie (Geological Survey of Canada, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia) visited the herbarium this year for work on Salicornia. She is an Environmental Marine Geologist with an interest in the Canadian arctic islands, and has been working on KDT, and Long Ago Person Found with Dr. Dickson.

Additional visitors and herbarium users include:

British Columbia Conservation Data Centre: Work on The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia, and the CDC rare plant database
Vancouver General Hospital poisonous plant inquiries
RCMP--Richmond forensic botany requests
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) Status report research and compilation, various researchers including Terry McIntosh, Brian Kinkenberg, Rose Klinkenberg and Chris Sears
Peace River Project, Department of Geography plant identification for this project
Faculty of Forestry Karel Klinka lab
Faculty of Agriculture specimen identification

Publications by Curators, Faculty and Research Associates

Wilf Schofield

Schofield, Wilf. 2002. Field Guide to Liverwort Genera of Pacific North America. University of Washington Press, Seattle.

Mary Berbee

Berbee M. L. 2001. The phylogeny of plant and animal pathogens in the Ascomycota. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 59: 165-187.

Landvik S, Eriksson OE, Berbee M. L. 2001. Neolecta - a fungal dinosaur? Evidence from beta-tubulin amino acid sequences. Mycologia 93: 1151-1163.

Zhang G, Berbee M. L. 2001. Pyrenophora phylogenetics inferred from ITS and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene sequences. Mycologia 93: 1048-1063.

Fred Ganders

Ganders, F., R. Klinkenberg and B. Klinkenberg. 2002. British Columbia loses an endemic species: Bidens amplissima (Asteraceae) also occurs in Washington state. Botanical Electronic News (BEN) No. 293, July 12, 2002.

Kennedy, H. and F. R. Ganders 2001. Marantaceae. In Stevens, W.D., C. Ulloa Ulloa, A. Pool & O. M. Montiel, eds. Flora de Nicaragua. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Garden 85 (2): 1322--1335. 2001.

Trevor Goward

Arsenault, Andre and Trevor Goward. 2000. Ecological characteristics of Inland Rain Forests. In: L. M. Darling. 2000. Proceedings of the Conference on the Biology and Management of species and habitats at risk. Kamloops, BC, 15-19 Feb. 1999. Volume 1. British Columbia Mnistry of Environment, Lands and Parks, and the University College of the Caribou, Kamloops, BC.

Arsenault, Andre and Trevor Goward. 2000. The drip zone effect: new insight into the distribution of rare lichens. In: L. M. Darling. 2000. Proceedings of the Conference on the Biology and Management of species and habitats at risk. Kamloops, BC, 15-19 Feb. 1999. Volume 1. British Columbia Mnistry of Environment, Lands and Parks, and the University College of the Caribou, Kamloops, BC.

Arssenault, Andre and Trevor Goward. 2000. Cyanolichen distribution in young unmanaged forests: A drip zone effect? The Bryologist 103 (1): 28-37.

Goward, Trevor and Andre Aresenault 2000a. Inland old-growth rain forests: safe havens for rare lichens. In: L. M. Darling. 2000. Proceedings of the Conference on the Biology and Management of species and habitats at risk. Kamloops, BC, 15-19 Feb. 1999. Volume 1. British Columbia Mnistry of Environment, Lands and Parks, and the University College of the Caribou, Kamloops, BC.

Goward, Trevor and Andre Arsenault. 2000b. Cyanolichens and conifers: implications for global conservation. For. Snow Landsc. Res. 75 (3): 303-318.

Goward, Trevor and Bernard Golfinet. 2000. Peltigera chionophila, a new lichen (Ascomycetes) from the Western Cordillera of North America. The Bryologist 103 (3): 493 - 498.

Helen Kennedy

Suárez, S., G. Galeano and H. Kennedy. 2001. Una Nueva Especie del Género Monophyllanthe (Marantaceae) de la Cuenca Amazónica. Novon 11: 356-359.

Kennedy, H. 2001. Calathea. In P. Berry, K. Yatskievych and B. Holst, eds. Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 6: 221-230. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Kennedy, H. and F. R. Ganders 2001. Marantaceae. In Stevens, W. D., C. Ulloa Ulloa, A. Pool & O. M. Montiel, eds. Flora de Nicaragua. Monographs Systematic Botany Missouri Botanical Garden 85(2): 1322--1335. 2001.

Kennedy, H. 2001. A New Twist -- Leaf arrangement in the Zingiberales. Heliconia Society Internal Bulletin 10(3) 11-13.

W. Delin & H. Kennedy. 2000. Marantaceae. In W. Zhengyi and P. Raven, eds., Flora of China Vol. 24, Flagellariaceae through Marantaceae, pp 379-382. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Brian Klinkenberg

Klinkenberg, B. 2002. Spatial analysis of the coincidence of rare vascular plants in the Carolinian Zone of Canada: implications for protection. Canadian Geographer 46 (3): 194 - 203.

Klinkenberg, B. 2001. Similarity of the flora of the Erie Islands. Canadian Geographer 45 (3): 337-448

Klinkenberg, Brian and Rose Klinkenberg. 2002. Biodiversity Protection: Inventory and Monitoring of rare rhizomatous geophytes in British Columbia. Report to the Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management, Victoria. 70 pp.

Klinkenberg, B. and R. Klinkenberg. 2001. Draft COSEWIC Status Report on Riverbank Lupine (Lupinus rivularis Dougl. ex Lindl.) in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa.

Klinkenberg, B. and R. Klinkenberg. 2001. COSEWIC Status report on Vancouver Island Beggartick (Bidens amplissima Greene) in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa.

Klinkenberg, B., R. Klinkenberg and C. Sears. 2002. Preliminary draft COSEWIC Status Report on purple spike rush (Eleocharis atropurpurea (Retz) Kunth.) in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa.

Sandra Lindstrom

Conitz, J. M., R. Fagen, S. C. Lindstrom, F. G. Plumley & M. S. Stekoll. 2001. Growth and pigmentation of juvenile Porphyra torta (Rhodophyta) gametophytes in response to nitrate, salinity and inorganic carbon. Journal of Applied Phycology 13: 423-431.

Lindstrom, S. C. 2001. The Bering Strait connection: dispersal and speciation in boreal macroalgae. Journal of Biogeography 28: 243-251.

Driskell, W. B., J. L. Ruesink, D. C. Lees, J. P. Houghton & S. C. Lindstrom. 2001. Long-term signal of disturbance: Fucus gardneri after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Ecological Applications 11: 815-827.

Tai, V., S. C. Lindstrom & G. W. Saunders. 2001. Phylogeny of the Dumontiaceae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) and associated families based on SSU rDNA and internal transcribed spacer sequence data. Journal of Phycology 37: 184-196.

Web publications and non-refereed works

Frank Lomer, Rose Klinkenberg and Brian Klinkenberg. 2002. Draft checklist of plants of the islands of Richmond, British Columbia. Web publication:

Klinkenberg, B. 2000. The Phantom Orchid in Canada. Menziesia 5 (3): 6-7.

Klinkenberg, Brian and Rose Klinkenberg. 2002. Lupinus rivularis Dougl. ex Lindl. (riverbank lupine), a little known BC species. Menziesia 7(4): 4-5.

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