Beaty Biodiversity Museum

University of British Columbia Herbarium

June 2000 Herbarium Paper

Table of Contents

Fundraising Accelerates


As of June 1999 we had raised $913 in the Herbarium Fund and Parks Canada had paid $5,000 for seaweed specimen data. During this past year fundraising has begun to accelerate, and we have received more than $26,000, including more than $16,000 in donations and $10,000 from Parks Canada for additional seaweed specimen data.

The Herbarium Fund
The most complete list of donors to the Herbarium fund that I have been able to obtain follows: Charles Layton, Robert Brooke, Alana Nordstrand, Milton McClaren, Michaela Waterhouse, Glendon Porter, Duncan Morrison, Alexander Inselberg, Dean Blinn, Robert Heese, Roger Phillips, Lee Donald Cadden, James Markham, Carole Reiner, and an anonymous donor. Donations since June 1999 total an additional $2,416. Faculty of Science Development Officer Hales Jones has assisted in obtaining approximately $7,500 from the estate of Philip James Salisbury, deceased, who was interested in plant and forest pathology. These contributions are most appreciated. The Herbarium Fund now has over $10,000.

The Tropical Rainforest Plant Fund
This fund has been set up specifically to receive donations for research on tropical rainforest plants. It is intended primarily but not exclusively to support research on the Marantaceae by Curator of Vascular Plants Dr. Helen Kennedy. This fund has received two anonymous donations totalling $6,180.

Phycological Herbarium
The phycological herbarium has received $10,000 from Parks Canada for seaweed specimen data from the Gulf Islands, where a marine park is contemplated. Some of the money was spent on new computers for the phycological herbarium database.

Director's Message

--- from Fred Ganders

It is gratifying that my efforts to raise awareness of the Herbarium and attract funding are finally starting to pay off. Much more remains to be done. I submitted what I thought was a strong proposal to UBC President Martha Piper for money for metal herbarium cases, which was supported by the Head of Botany and Dean of Science, and by good letters from Dr, Peter Raven, Director of the Missouri Botanical Garden and President of the XVI International Botanical Congress, and Dr. Nancy Turner, British Columbia's foremost ethnobotanist. Despite President Piper's concern about the fire safety of the Herbarium, she turned down our request, and suggested applying for a Canada Foundation for Innovation Grant. This we are doing through the UBC Centre for Biodiversity Research, although I think chances of success via this route are small. I have more hope for our application for a BC Genome/Genome Canada grant we are applying for with BC Research, Inc., and other partners in the Pacific Rim Medicinal Herb Authentication Centre (see below). And now for something completely different. Although absolutely no one has asked me about it, I'm going to tell you the significance of the Herbarium Paper (UBC)'s name and logo. Well, of course, herbarium paper is what our specimens are mounted on, and (UBC) is the international acronym for our herbarium, and how our herbarium is cited in taxonomic publications. As for the logo, the provincial flower, the Pacific Dogwood, came to mind, but it is often associated with the Provincial Government and Vancouver Island, so I thought I'd leave it to the Royal BC Museum or University of Victoria. Western Redcedar is even more fitting, perhaps, because it is the provincial tree, and it is has more documented uses by aboriginal peoples than any other single North American plant species, and the drawing was made by the late Dr. Gerald B. Straley, my predecessor as Director of the UBC Herbarium. The drawing, used with permission, is from An Illustrated Flora of the University Endowment Lands, by Gerald B. Straley and R. Patrick Harrison, 1987.

The Pacific Rim Medicinal Herb Authentication Centre

--- from Fred Ganders

In last year's Herbarium Paper I mentioned our goal to establish a medicinal herb collection, with an emphasis on Chinese medicinal herbs. After the Federal Government announced a new Office of Natural Health Products, I began contacting government officials to see if funding for our type of project was going to be available. Dr. Ann Eastman, Director, Natural Health Products, BC Research Inc., was independently trying to get funding for projects at BC Research. BC Research is an integrated science, technology and innovation company providing laboratory analysis and testing, field work, pilot plants, consulting services, and applied research and development. One day she called me asking if the Herbarium was interested in cooperating with her ambitious plans. Sure, I said. We are now proposing to develop a Canadian authenticated medicinal plant center on the west coast of Canada in an alliance between industry and academia. It would provide information and tools to government regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders such as Canadian manufacturers and researchers, as well as to our international counterparts such as the American Herbal Pharmacopeia and the Royal Botanic Garden in Kew, England. We envision the Pacific Rim Medicinal Herb Authentication Centre (PRIMHAC) as a major west coast node in a national network of organizations involved in research on medicinal natural products. The long-term goals for the proposed centre include:
  1. Establishment of a Medicinal Herb Collection in the UBC Herbarium, and an expanded medicinal herb garden at the UBC Botanical Garden. These collections would be used for morphological and anatomical identifications, and as a source of dried or fresh material for DNA extraction, research and testing.
  2. Production of authenticated medicinal plant reference material - specifically fresh plants, processed plant tissues and extracts - for use by regulatory agencies, researchers, and manufacturers,
  3. Development of a database of DNA markers for use in medicinal plant authentication and for endangered plant species monitoring.

BC Research Inc. sponsored a conference on "Issues in Natural Health Product Analysis" on June 17, 2000 chaired by Dr. Ann Eastman. At her insistence I presented a talk on Herbaria and Medicinal Herbs, to publicize our agenda. We were pleased to hear that most of the speakers thought that one of the most crucial problems in the medicinal herb industry was the correct botanical identification of the herbs. Ann is preparing a proposal to ask for money through the BC Genome Project, for a Genetic Pharmacopoeia.

The Herbarium's goal in all this is a Medicinal Herb Collection which can be used to authenticate medicinal herbs. We want to acquire herbarium specimens of all medicinal herbs, admixture plants, fakes, and adulterants that we can. We will especially need to acquire specimens of Chinese medicinal plants. Chinese herbs make up most of the species used in herbal medicine. More than 500 species that are used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine are available on the market. Many traditional Chinese medicines are mixtures of several herbs, and may include other plants as well. In addition, many other species of plants are used as substitutes, adulterants, and fakes. In addition to herbarium specimens of medicinal plants, the Medicinal Herb Collection will need to acquire crude drug samples (processed medicinal plants), and a library of literature on medicinal plants.

We are also seeking funds to hire a curator as a research associate in the herbarium to assemble the Medicinal Herb Collection. The curator would acquire, identify, and accessioning material, and organize exchanges, trades, and purchases of specimens. In addition it is expected that the curator would participate in plant collecting expeditions, especially to China. The curator's research would develop methods of identification of herbal specimens including fragmentary material using morphology and microscopic anatomy, and might include taxonomic studies of medicinal herbs.

Herbarium People


Dr. Mary Berbee
Curator of Fungi, will be promoted to Associate Professor and receive tenure in July.
Stephanie Chan,
one of our volunteers who mounts herbarium specimens, spent several weeks in hospital where it was eventually discovered she had a tear in her aorta. She is home now and we wish her a fast and complete recovery.
Olivia Lee,
our herbarium technician who actually runs the place, was inducted into the UBC Staff 25 Year Club for her quarter century of service in the UBC Herbarium.
Dr. Jack Maze,
emeritus professor of Botany and Curator of Vascular Plants in the Herbarium many years ago, writes that he is using Pacific Northwest species of Achnatherum (needle grasses) in a study seeking the common causes of irreversible change in biology, i. e., ontogeny and phylogeny, using the concept of emergence. An ancillary result of this project was the description of a new species, Achnatherum wallowensis, of central and northeastern Oregon [Maze, Jack, and Kathleen A. Robson. 1996. A new species of Achnatherum (Oryzopsis) from Oregon. Madrono 43: 393-403.].
Carla Rydholm
is helping curator of Lichens Trevor Goward this summer. This fall she will start graduate studies in lichenology at Duke University.

Not Just Dead Plants: the UBC Third Age Spring Lectures

--- from Fred Ganders

Not Just Dead Plants, the article I wrote about the UBC Herbarium for the UBC Chronicle last year, was beautfully produced by Chronicle editor Mr. Chris Petty, who even came to the Herbarium to photograph the type specimen of Calathea gandersii. H. Kenn. for the article. After the article was published I was asked to give a series of lectures about it for the UBC Third Age Spring Lectures, a special program offered by UBC Continuing Studies for the retired or semi-retired, 55 or over. This seemed like a good opportunity to publicize the Herbarium, so I gave three lectures, Curator of algae Dr. Mike Hawkes gave one, and Curator of vascular plants Dr. Helen Kennedy gave one, during the week of May 29-June 2, 2000. The course had an appreciative audience of 30-40 people. Some were so interested they wanted to visit the Herbarium, and came over for an hour after the final lecture, where Curator of Fungi Dr. Mary Berbee also explained to them how DNA is sequenced for taxonomic studies.

New Books by Curators


The Lichens of British Columbia, Illustrated Keys, Part 2- Fruticose Species by Curator of Lichens Trevor Goward was published by the Ministry of Forests Research Program in 1999. The 319 page book is also illustrated by Trevor, and all the lichens are given common names, some rather fanciful, e. g., Zahlbrucknerella calcarea is the Frosted Rockserpent. If you're the first one to write a book about them, I guess you get to name them.

Research Associate in Phycology, Dr. Sandra Lindstrom, has coauthored a new book with Rita M. O'Clair: North Pacific Seaweeds, published by Plant Press, P O Box 210094, Auke Bay, AK 99821-0094, USA. To order a copy, send a cheque for US $27.95 (includes shipping). Most of the 154 species are illustrated, and the book includes a 16-page color insert. A nice article about Dr. Lindstrom appears on pages 28-30 in the February 2000 issue of Alaskan Southeaster. Only one typo, probably introduced by a proofreader who never heard of phycology, "Lindstrom, who was born and raised in Juneau but now resides in Surrey, British Columbia, is a seaweed specialist, or psychologist."

Curator of Algae and seaweed psychologist Dr. Mike Hawkes and Dr. Lindstrom and emeritus Director of the Herbarium Dr. Robert F. Scagel, along with Paul W. Gabrielson and Thomas B. Widdowson have published a significant revision of keys to the seaweeds of BC and neighboring areas: Gabrielson, P. W., T. B. Widdowson, S. C. Lindstrom, M. W. Hawkes, and R. F. Scagel. 1999. Keys to the Benthic Marine Algae and Seagrasses of British Columbia, southeast Alaska, Washington and Oregon. Vancouver: Botany Dept., UBC.

Forthcoming Book by a Curator


Curator of Bryophytes Wilf Schofield is negotiating with University of Washington Press to publish his book Liverwort Genera of Pacific North America. It will probably appear in early 2001. Publication costs are being supported by a grant of $15,000 from Global Forest, a foundation for pure science managed by Dr. Reese Halter.

Other Publications by Curators This Past Year

Fred Ganders
Ganders, F. R., M. Berbee, and M. Perseyedi. 2000. ITS base sequence phylogeny in Bidens (Asteraceae): Evidence for the continental relatives of Hawaiian and Marquesan Bidens. Systematic Botany 25: 122-133.
Kim, S.-C., D. J. Crawford, M. Tadesse, M. Berbee, F. R. Ganders, M. Perseyedi, and E. J. Esselman. 1999. ITS sequences and phylogenetic relationships in Bidens and Coreopsis (Asteraceae). Systematic Botany 24: 480-493.
Griffiths, A. J. F., and F. R. Ganders. 1999. Allopolyploidy in western bunchberry. Menziesia 4: 9-10.
Marshall, M., and F. R. Ganders. 1999. Sex-related seed-predation in Sidalcea hendersonii (Malvaceae). Menziesia 4: 14-15.
Ganders, F. R. 1999. Not just dead plants. UBC Chronicle 53: 10-11.
Ganders, F. R. 1999. Rare plants affected by road closures. Cloudburst 9:21. (newsletter of the Federation of Mountain Clubs of BC)
Helen Kennedy
Kennedy, H. 2000. Diversification in pollination mechanisms in the Marantaceae. In: K. L. Wilson, and D. A. Morrison (eds.). Monocots, Systematics and Evolution. pp. 335-343. Collingwood, Victoria, Australia: CSIRO Publishing.
Kennedy, H. 2000. Marantaceae. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (eds.). Flora of North America 22: 315-319. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kennedy, H. 1999. Calathea singularis and Stromanthe palustris, two new species of Neotropical Marantaceae. Novon 9: 61-65.
Mary Berbee
Yun, S. H., Berbee, M. L., Yoder, O. C., and Turgeon, B. G. 1999. Evolution of fungal reproductive life style; self-fertility is derived from self-sterile ancestors. PNAS 96: 5592-5597.
Berbee, M. L., M. Pirseyedi, and Hubbard, S. 1999. Cochliobolus phylogenetics and the origin of known, highly virulent pathogens, inferred from ITS and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene sequences. Mycologia, 91(6): 964-977.
Monreal, M., Berch, S. M., and Berbee, M. L. 1999. Molecular diversity of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi. Can. J. Bot., 77: 1580-1594.
Sussmann, A. V., Mable, B. K., DeWreede, R. E., and Berbee, M. L. 1999. Identification of green algal endophytes as the alternate phase of Acrosiphonia (Codiolales, Chlorophyta) using ITS-1 and -2 ribosomal DNA sequence data. J. Phycol. 35: 607-614.
Berbee, M. L. and J. W. Taylor. 1999. Fungal Phylogeny. In: Oliver, R. P., and Schweizer, M., eds. Molecular Fungal Biology. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 21-77.
Wake, K., and M. Berbee. 2000. PCR in Mycology. Mycol. Res. 104: 117.
Wilf Schofield
Ando, H. & W. B. Schofield. 1999. Hypnum fauriei, not H. fertile (Hypnaceae, Bryopsida), in eastern North America. Bryobrothera 5: 49-54.

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