Metzger, D. C., Earhart, M. L., & Schulte, P. M. (2024). Genomic and Epigenomic Influences on Resilience Across Scales: lessons from the responses of fishes to environmental stressors. Integrative and Comparative Biology, icae019.


Gilmour, K. M., Daley, M. A., Egginton, S., Kelber, A., McHenry, M. J., Patek, S. N., … & Franklin, C. E. (2023). Through the looking glass: attempting to predict future opportunities and challenges in experimental biology. Journal of Experimental Biology226(24).

Earhart, M. L., Blanchard, T. S., Strowbridge, N., Sheena, R., McMaster, C., Staples, B., … & Schulte, P. M. (2023). Heatwave resilience of juvenile white sturgeon is associated with epigenetic and transcriptional alterations. Scientific Reports13(1), 15451.

Dimos, B. A., Lopez, A. C., Schulte, P. M., & Phelps, M. P. (2023). Local Thermal Adaptation occurs via Modulation of Mitochondrial Activity in Chinook Salmon. bioRxiv, 2023-09.

Earhart, M. L., Blanchard, T. S., Morrison, P. R., Strowbridge, N., Penman, R. J., Brauner, C. J., Schulte, P. M., & Baker, D. W. (2023). Identification of upper thermal thresholds during development in the endangered Nechako white sturgeon with management implications for a regulated river. Conservation Physiology11(1), coad032.

Schulte, P. M. (2023). Effects of temperature: an introduction. Elsevier. 


Moyes, C. D., Schulte, P. M., & West, T. G. (2022). Burst exercise recovery metabolism in fish white muscle. In Surviving Hypoxia (pp. 527-539). CRC Press.

Woods, H. A., Moran, A. L., Atkinson, D., Audzijonyte, A., Berenbrink, M., Borges, F. O., … & Verberk, W. C. (2022). Integrative approaches to understanding organismal responses to aquatic deoxygenation. The Biological Bulletin243(2), 85-103.

Earhart, M. L., Blanchard, T. S., Harman, A. A., & Schulte, P. M. (2022). Hypoxia and high temperature as interacting stressors: will plasticity promote resilience of fishes in a changing world?. The Biological Bulletin243(2), 149-170.

Giacomin, M., Schulte, P. M., & Wood, C. M. (2022). Osmorespiratory compromise in an elasmobranch: oxygen consumption, ventilation and nitrogen metabolism during recovery from exhaustive exercise in dogfish sharks (Squalus suckleyi). Journal of Comparative Physiology B192(5), 647-657.

Earhart, M. L., Blanchard, T. S., Strowbridge, N., Bugg, W. S., & Schulte, P. M. (2022). Gene expression and latitudinal variation in the stress response in Fundulus heteroclitus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology268, 111188.

Schulte, P. M., & Healy, T. M. (2022). Physiological diversity and its importance for fish conservation and management in the Anthropocene. In Fish Physiology (Vol. 39, pp. 435-477). Academic Press.


Grummer, J. A., Whitlock, M. C., Schulte, P. M., & Taylor, E. B. (2021). Growth genes are implicated in the evolutionary divergence of sympatric piscivorous and insectivorous rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). BMC Ecology and Evolution21, 1-13.

McKenzie, D. J., Zhang, Y., Eliason, E. J., Schulte, P. M., Claireaux, G., Blasco, F. R., … & Farrell, A. P. (2021). Intraspecific variation in tolerance of warming in fishes. Journal of Fish Biology98(6), 1536-1555.

Strowbridge, N., Northrup, S. L., Earhart, M. L., Blanchard, T. S., & Schulte, P. M. (2021). Acute measures of upper thermal and hypoxia tolerance are not reliable predictors of mortality following environmental challenges in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Conservation Physiology9(1), coab095.


Chung, D. J., & Schulte, P. M. (2020). Mitochondria and the thermal limits of ectotherms. Journal of Experimental Biology223(20), jeb227801.

Fangue, N. A., Todgham, A. E., & Schulte, P. M. (2020). Thermal Biology. In The Physiology of Fishes (pp. 91-104). CRC Press.

Giacomin, M., Onukwufor, J. O., Schulte, P. M., & Wood, C. M. (2020). Ionoregulatory aspects of the hypoxia-induced osmorespiratory compromise in the euryhaline Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus): the effects of salinity. Journal of Experimental Biology223(13), jeb216309.

Sutcliffe, R. L., Li, S., Gilbert, M. J., Schulte, P. M., Miller, K. M., & Farrell, A. P. (2020). A rapid intrinsic heart rate resetting response with thermal acclimation in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Journal of Experimental Biology223(12), jeb215210.


McKenzie, J. L., Chung, D. J., Healy, T. M., Brennan, R. S., Bryant, H. J., Whitehead, A., and Schulte, P. M. (2019). Mitochondrial ecophysiology: assessing the evolutionary forces that shape mitochondrial variation. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 59(4), 925-937.

Havird, J. C., Weaver, R. J., Milani, L., Ghiselli, F., Greenway, R., Ramsey, A. J., ..Schulte, P.M.. & Estes, S. (2019). Beyond the powerhouse: integrating mitonuclear evolution, physiology, and theory in comparative biology. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 59(4), 856-863.

Brady, S., Bolnick, D. I., Barrett, R. D., Chapman, L. J., Crispo, E., Derry, A. M., … Schulte, P.M. and Guichard, F. (2019). Understanding maladaptation by uniting ecological and evolutionary perspectives. American Naturalist

Regan, M.D., Mandic, M., Dhillon, R.S., Lau, G.Y., Farrell, A.P., Schulte, P.M., Seibel, B.A., Speers-Roesch, B., Ultsch, G.R. and Richards, J.G. (2019). Don’t throw the fish out with the respirometry water. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 222(Pt 6). jeb200253

Weir, L. K., Barker, M. K., McDonnell, L. M., Schimpf, N. G., Rodela, T. M., & Schulte, P. M. (2019). Small changes, big gains: A curriculum-wide study of teaching practices and student learning in undergraduate biology. PloS one, 14(8).

Healy, T. M., Brennan, R. S., Whitehead, A., and Schulte, P. M. (2019). Mitochondria, sex and variation in routine metabolic rate. Molecular Ecology. 28(20)

Safi, H., Zhang, Y., Schulte, P. M., & Farrell, A. P. (2019 in press). The effect of acute warming and thermal acclimation on maximum heart rate of the common killifish Fundulus heteroclitus. Journal of Fish Biology.

Healy, T.M. and Schulte, P.M. (2019) Patterns of alternative splicing in response to cold acclimation in fish. Journal of Experimental Biology. 222(5), jeb193516. PDF

Giacomin, M., Eom, J. Schulte, P.M. and Wood, C.M. (2019) The effects of salinity and hypoxia exposure on oxygen consumption, ventilation, diffusive water exchange and ionoregulation in the Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus Stoutii). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. 232:47-59 PDF

Giacomin, M., Eom, J., Schulte, P.M. and Wood, C.M. (2019) Acute temperature effects on metabolic rate, ventilation, diffusive water exchange, osmoregulation, and acid-base status in the Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii). Journal of Comparative Physiology B. 189: 17-35. PDF

Giacomin, M., Bryant, H. J., Val, A. L., Schulte, P. M., and Wood, C. M. (2019). The osmorespiratory compromise: physiological responses and tolerance to hypoxia are affected by salinity acclimation in the euryhaline Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Journal of Experimental Biology, 222(19), jeb206599.


Bryant, H.J., Chung, D.J and Schulte, P.M. (2018) Subspecies differences in thermal acclimation of mitochondrial function and the role of uncoupling proteins in killifish. Journal of Experimental Biology. 221 (24), jeb186320 PDF

Healy, T. M., Brennan, R. S., Whitehead, A., and Schulte, P. M. (2018). Tolerance traits related to climate change resilience are independent and polygenic. Global Change Biology. 24: 5348–5360. PDF

Brennan, R. S., Healy, T. M., Bryant, H. J., La, M. V., Schulte, P. M., and Whitehead, A. (2018). Integrative population and physiological genomics reveals mechanisms of adaptation in killifish. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 35 (11): 2639-2653 PDF

Metzger, D.C.H and Schulte, P.M. (2018). The DNA methylation landscape of stickleback reveals patterns of sex chromosome evolution and effects of environmental salinity.Genome Biology and Evolution. 10(3): 775–785 PDF 

Zhang, Y., Healy, T. M., Vandersteen, W., Schulte, P. M., & Farrell, A. P. (2018). A rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss strain with higher aerobic scope in normoxia also has superior tolerance of hypoxia. Journal of Fish Biology, 92(2): 487-503. PDF

Gibbons, T. C., McBryan, T. L., and Schulte, P. M. (2018). Interactive effects of salinity and temperature acclimation on gill morphology and gene expression in threespine stickleback. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 221: 55-62. PDF

Metzger, D. C., and Schulte, P. M. (2018). Similarities in temperature‐dependent gene expression plasticity across timescales in threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Molecular Ecology, 27(10): 2381-2396. PDF

Chung, D. J., Sparagna, G. C., Chicco, A. J., and Schulte, P. M. (2018). Patterns of mitochondrial membrane remodeling parallel functional adaptations to thermal stress. Journal of Experimental Biology, 221(7), jeb174458. PDF

Chung, D. J., Healy, T. M., McKenzie, J. L., Chicco, A. J., Sparagna, G. C., and Schulte, P. M. (2018). Mitochondria, temperature, and the pace of life. Integrative and Comparative Biology. 58(3): 578-590. [Editor’s choice] PDF

Hood, W.R., Austad, S.N., Bize, P., Jimenez, A.G., Montooth, K.L., Schulte, P.M., Scott, G.R., Sokolova, I., Treberg, J.R. and Salin, K., (2018). The mitochondrial contribution to animal performance, adaptation, and life-history variation. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 58(3): 480-485. PDF

Jutfelt, F., Norin, T., Ern, R., Overgaard, J., Wang, T., McKenzie, D. J., Schulte, P.M. & Brijs, J. (2018). Oxygen-and capacity-limited thermal tolerance: blurring ecology and physiology. Journal of Experimental Biology, 221(1), jeb169615. PDF

Marshall, W. S., Breves, J. P., Doohan, E. M., Tipsmark, C. K., Kelly, S. P., Robertson, G. N., & Schulte, P. M. (2018). Claudin-10 isoform expression and cation selectivity change with salinity in salt-secreting epithelia of Fundulus heteroclitus. Journal of Experimental Biology, 221(1), jeb168906. PDF


Gibbons, T. C., Rudman, S. M., & Schulte, P. M. (2017). Low temperature and low salinity drive putatively adaptive growth differences in populations of threespine stickleback. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 16766. PDF

Macqueen, D. J., Primmer, C. R., Houston, R. D., Nowak, B. F., Bernatchez, L., Bergseth, S., Schulte P.M… & Iturra, P. (2017). Functional Annotation of All Salmonid Genomes (FAASG): an international initiative supporting future salmonid research, conservation and aquaculture. BMC Genomics 18:484 PDF

Chung, D. J., Morrison, P. R., Bryant, H. J., Jung, E., Brauner, C. J., & Schulte, P. M. (2017). Intraspecific variation and plasticity in mitochondrial oxygen binding affinity as a response to environmental temperature. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 16238. PDF

Metzger, D.C.H and Schulte, P.M. (2017). Persistent and plastic effects of temperature on DNA methylation across the genome of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Proceedings of the Royal Society. B. Vol. 284 (1864): 20171667 PDF

Giacomin, M., Schulte, P.M. and Wood, C.M., (2017). Differential effects of temperature on oxygen consumption and branchial fluxes of urea, ammonia, and water in the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias suckleyi). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 90 (6), 627-637 PDF

Bystriansky J.S., Clarke W.C., Alonge M.M., Judd S.M., Schulte P.M., Devlin R.H. (2017) Salinity acclimation and advanced parr-smolt transformation in growth hormone transgenic coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Canadian Journal of Zoology. 95 (9), 633-643 PDF

Gibbons, T.C., Metzger, D.C., Healy, T M., and Schulte, P. M. (2017). Gene expression plasticity in response to salinity acclimation in threespine stickleback ecotypes from different salinity habitats. Molecular Ecology. 26 (10), 2711-2725. PDF

McKenzie, J.L, Bucking C., Moreira, A., and Schulte, P.M. (2017) Intrinsic reproductive isolating mechanisms in the maintenance of a hybrid zone between ecologically divergent subspecies. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 30 (4), 848-864. PDF

Chung, D.J., Bryant, H.J. and Schulte, P.M. (2017) Thermal acclimation and subspecies-specific effects on heart and brain mitochondrial performance in a eurythermal teleost (Fundulus heteroclitus). Journal of Experimental Biology. 220 (8), 1459-1471. PDF

Silva, L. Vladilo, G. Schulte, P.M., Murante, G. and Provencale, A. (2017) From climate models to planetary habitability: temperature constraints for complex life. International Journal of Astrobiology. 16(3), 244-265. PDF

Healy, T.M. Bryant, H.J. and Schulte, P.M. (2017) Mitochondrial genotype and phenotypic plasticity ofgene expression in response to cold acclimation in killifish. Molecular Ecology. 26 (3), 814-830 PDF


McKenzie, J.L., Dhillon, R.S. and Schulte, P.M. (2016). Steep, coincident, and concordant clines in mitochondrial and nuclear‐encoded genes in a hybrid zone between subspecies of Atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus. Ecology and Evolution, 6(16): 5771-5787. PDF

Metzger, D.C. and Schulte, P.M. (2016). Maternal stress has divergent effects on gene expression patterns in the brains of male and female threespine stickleback. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 283: 20161734 PDF

Healy, T.M., Chung, D.J., Crowther, K.G. and Schulte, P.M. (2016). Metabolic and regulatory responses involved in cold acclimation in Atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus. Journal of Comparative Physiology B: 1-13. PDF

Vines, T.M,  Dalziel, A.C., Albert, A., Veen, T., Schulte, P.M, and Schluter, D. (2016) Cline coupling and uncoupling in a stickleback hybrid zone. Evolution. 70: 1023-1038. PDF

Metzger, D.C.H. and Schulte, P.M. (2016). Epigenomics in marine fishes. Marine Genomics. 30: 43-54. doi:10.1016/j.margen.2016.01.004 PDF

Metzger, D.C.H, Hemmer-Hansen, J. and Schulte, P.M. (2016) Conserved structure and expression of HSP70 paralogs in teleost fishes. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology D: Genomics and Proteomics. 18:10-20 PDF

McBryan, T.L., Healy, T.M. and Schulte, P.M. (2016). Warm acclimation improves hypoxia tolerance in Fundulus heteroclitus. Journal of Experimental Biology. 219:474-484 (featured in Inside JEB) (Finalist for best student paper 2016) PDF


Rodriguez-Cabal, M.A., Gibbons, T. C., Schulte, P. M., Barrios-Garcia, M. N., and Crutsinger, G. M. (2015). Comparing functional similarity between a native and an alien slug in temperate rain forests of British Columbia. NeoBiota, 25, 1. PDF

McKenzie, J.L., Dhillon, R.S. and Schulte, P.M. (2015). Evidence for a bimodal distribution of hybrid indices in a hybrid zone with high admixture. Royal Society Open Science, 2(12): 150285. PDF

Schulte, P.M. (2015). The effects of temperature on aerobic metabolism: towards a mechanistic understanding of the responses of ecotherms to a changing environment. Journal of Experimental Biology.  218(12): 1856-1866. PDF

Chung, D. J., and Schulte, P. M. (2015). Mechanisms and costs of mitochondrial thermal acclimation in a eurythermal killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). The Journal of Experimental Biology, 218: 1621-1631 PDF


Scott, M.A., Dhillon, R.S., Schulte, P.M. and Richards, J.R. (2014). Physiology and performance of wild and domestic strains of diploid and triploid rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in response to environmental challenges. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 72(1): 125-134 PDF

Dalziel, A.C., Bittman, J., Mandic, M., Ou, M., Schulte, P.M. (2014) Origins and functional diversification of salinity-responsive Na+ , K+ ATPase α1 paralogs in salmonids. Molecular Ecology. 23(14): 3483-3503. PDF

Gignac, S.J., Vo, N.T.K., Mikhaeil, J.M.S., Alexander, A.N., MacLatchy, D.L., Schulte, P.M., and Lee, L.E.J. (2014) Derivation of a continuous myogenic cell culture from an embryo of common killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. 175:15-27. PDF

Schulte, P.M. (2014). What is environmental stress? Insights from fish living in a variable environment. Journal of Experimental Biology 217: 23-34. PDF


McBryan, T.L. Anttila, K. Healy, T.M. and Schulte P.M. (2013) Responses to temperature and hypoxia as interacting stressors in fish: implications for adaptation to environmental change. Integrative and Comparative Biology. 53(4):648-59 PDF

Taylor, E.B., Darveau, C-A. and Schulte, P.M. (2013) Setting Conservation Priorities in a Widespread Species: Phylogeographic and Physiological Variation in the Lake Chub, Couesius plumbeus (Pisces: Cyprinidae). Diversity. 5(2), 149-165. PDF

Anttila K., Dhillon R.S., Boulding E.G., Farrell A.P., Glebe B.D., Elliott J.A., Wolters W.R., Schulte P.M. (2013) Variation in temperature tolerance among families of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is associated with hypoxia tolerance, ventricle size and myoglobin level. Journal of Experimental Biology 216(Pt 7):1183-90  (Finalist for best student paper 2013). PDF

Anttila K., Casselman M.T, Schulte P.M., Farrell A.P. (2013) Optimum temperature in juvenile salmonids: connecting subcellular indicators to tissue function and whole-organism thermal optimum. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 86(2):245-56. PDF

Urbino, M.A., Schulte, P.M., Bystriansky, J.S. and Glover, C.N. (2013) Differential expression of Na+, K+-ATPase α-1 isoforms during seawater acclimation in the amphidromous galaxiid fish Galaxias maculatus. Journal of Comparative Physiology-B183(3):345-57 PDF


Dalziel, A.C. and Schulte, P.M. (2012) Correlates of prolonged swimming performance in F2 hybrids of migratory and non-migratory threespine stickleback ecotypes. Journal of Experimental Biology. 215: 3587-3596 PDF

Li, X., Schulte, P.M., Godin, D.V., and Cheng, K.M. (2012) Differential mRNA expression of seven genes involved in cholesterol metabolism and transport in the liver of atherosclerosis-susceptible and -resistant Japanese quail. Genetics, Selection, Evolution 44:20 doi:10.1186/1297-9686-44-20 PDF

Koven, W. and Schulte P. (2012) The effect of fasting and refeeding on mRNA expression of PepT1 and gastrointestinal hormones regulating digestion and food intake in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 38: 1565-1575. PDF

Dalziel, A.C., Vines, T.H. and Schulte, P.M. (2012) Reductions in prolonged swimming capacity following freshwater colonization in multiple threespine stickleback populations Evolution, 66(4):1226-1239. PDF

Dalziel, A.C., Ou, M. and Schulte, P.M. (2012) Mechanisms underlying parallel reductions in aerobic capacity in non-migratory threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations. Journal of Experimental Biology. 215:746-759. PDF

Darveau C.A., Taylor E.B., Schulte P.M. (2012) Thermal physiology of warm-spring colonists: variation among lake chub (Cyprinidae: Couesius plumbeus) populations. Physiological and Biochemal Zoology 85(6):607-617. PDF

Healy, T.M., Schulte, P.M. (2012) Thermal acclimation is not necessary to maintain a wide thermal breadth of aerobic scope in the common killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 85:107-119. PDF

Bucking C. and Schulte, P.M. (2012) Environmental and nutritional regulation of expression and function of two peptide transporter (PepT1) isoforms in a euryhaline teleost. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology. 161(4):379-87 PDF

Schulte, P.M., Healy, T.H. and Fangue, N.A. (2012) Thermal performance curves, phenotypic plasticity, and the time scales of temperature exposure. Integrative and Comparative Biology. 51(5):691-702. PDF


Dhillon, R.S. and Schulte, P.M. (2011) Intraspecific variation in the thermal plasticity of mitochondria in killifish.  Journal of Experimental Biology: 214:3639-3648 PDF

Healy, T.M. and Schulte P.M. (2011) Factors affecting plasticity in whole-organism thermal tolerance in common killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Journal of Comparative Physiology B 182(1):49-62 PDF

Bystriansky, J.S. and Schulte, P.M. (2011) Patterns of gill ion transporter expression during freshwater acclimation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Journal of Experimental Biology. 214: 2435-2442. PDF

Fangue, N.A. Osborne, E.J., Todgham, A.E. and Schulte, P.M. (2011) The onset temperature of the heat-shock response and whole-organism thermal tolerance are tightly correlated in both laboratory-acclimated and field-acclimatized tidepool sculpins (Oligocottus maculosus). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology.  84(4): 341-52. PDF

Bowles, E., Schulte, P.M., Tollit, D.J., Deagle, B.E. and Trites, A.W. (2011) Proportion of prey consumed can be determined from faecal DNA using real-time PCR. Molecular Ecology Resources. 11: 530-540 PDF

Larsen, P.F. Schulte, P.M. and Nielsen, E.E. (2011). Gene expression analysis for the identification of selection and local adaptation in fishes. Journal of Fish Biology. 78(1):1-22. PDF

Scott, G.R., Schulte, P.M., Egginton, S., Scott, A.L., Richards, J.G., Milsom, W.K. (2011) Molecular Evolution of Cytochrome c Oxidase Underlies High-Altitude Adaptation in the Bar-Headed Goose. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 28(1):351-63. PDF

Barrett, R.D., Paccard, A., Healy, T.M., Bergek, S., Schulte, P.M., Schluter, D., Rogers, S.M. (2011) Rapid evolution of cold tolerance in stickleback. Proceeding of the Royal Society. Biological Sciences. 278(1703):233-8. PDF


Regan, M.D., Kuchel, L.J. , Huang, S.S.Y., Higgs, D.A., Wang, J., Schulte, P.M. and Brauner, C.J. (2010) The effect of dietary fish oil and poultry fat replacement with canola oil on swimming performance and metabolic response to hypoxia in stream type spring Chinook salmon parr. Aquaculture. 308:183–189] PDF

Pörtner, H-O., Schulte P.M., Wood, C.M., Schiemer, F. (2010) Niche dimensions in fishes: an integrative view. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 83(5):808-826. PDF

Vassilenko, E.I., Muttray, A.F., Schulte, P.M., Baldwin, S.A. (2010). Variations in p53-like cDNA sequence are correlated with mussel haemic neoplasia:  A potential molecular-level tool for biomonitoring. Mutation Research – Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis. 701(2):145-152. PDF

Skinner L,A., LaPatra, S.E., Adams, A., Thompson, K.D., Balfry, S.K., McKinley, R.S., Schulte, P.M. (2010) Concurrent injection of a rhabdovirus-specific DNA vaccine with a polyvalent, oil-adjuvanted vaccine delays the specific anti-viral immune response in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Fish and Shellfish Immunology. 28(4):579-586 PDF

Tymchuk, W., O’Reilly, P. Bittman, J., MacDonald, D., Schulte, P.M. (2010) Conservation genomics of Atlantic salmon: Variation in gene expression between and within regions of the Bay of Fundy. Molecular Ecology. 19: 1842-1859  [Note that this paper  was the subject of a special editorial feature (Hansen, M.M (2010)Expression of interest: transcriptomics and the designation of conservation units Molecular Ecology 19: 1757–1759] PDF

Skinner, L.A., LaPatra, S.E., Adams, A., Thompson, K.D., Balfry, S.K., McKinley, R.S. and Schulte, P.M. (2010). Supra-physiological levels of cortisol suppress lysozyme but not the antibody response in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) Aquaculture. 300: 223-230 PDF

Healy, T.M., Tymchuk, W.E., Osborne, E.J. and Schulte, P.M. (2010). The heat shock response of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus): candidate gene and heterologous microarray approaches. Physiological Genomics 41: 171-184. PDF

Skinner, L.A., Schulte, P.M. Balfry, S.K. McKinley, R.S. and LaPatra, S.E. (2010) The association between metabolic rate, immune parameters, and growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following the injection of a DNA vaccine alone and concurrent with a polyvalent, oil-adjuvanted vaccine.  Fish and Shellfish Immunology. 28(2): 387-393 PDF

Grant, A.A.M., Higgs, D.A., Brauner, C.J. and Schulte, P.M. (2010) Dietary lipid composition affects the gene expression of gill Na+K+-ATPase α1b but not the α1a isoform in juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).  Journal of Comparative Physiology. 180: 141-149. PDF


Dalziel, A.C., Rogers S.M. and Schulte, P.M. (2009) Linking genotypes to phenotypes and fitness: how mechanistic biology can inform molecular ecology. Molecular Ecology. 18: 4997-5017. PDF

Fangue, N.A., Podrabsky, J.E., Crawshaw, L.I and Schulte. P.M. (2009) Countergradient variation in temperature preference in populations of killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 82(6):776-786. PDF

Barrett, R.D.H., Vines, T.H., Bystriansky, J.S. and Schulte, P.M. (2009) Should I stay or should I go? The Ectodysplasin locus is associated with behavioural differences in threespine stickleback. Biology Letters. 5: 788-791. PDF

Gaston, K.J., Chown, S.L., Calosi, P. Bernardo, J., Bilton, D.T., Clarke, A. Clusella-Trullas, S. Ghalambor,C.K., Konarzewski, M., Peck, L.S., Porter, W.P. Pörtner,H.-O. Rezende, E.L. Schulte, P.M., Spicer, J.I., Stillman, J., Terblanche, J.S. and van Kleunen, M. (2009). Macrophysiology: a conceptual re-unification. American Naturalist. 174: 595-612. PDF  

Rees, B.B., Figueroa, Y.D., Wiese, T.E., Beckman, B.S., and Schulte, P.M. (2009) A novel hypoxia-response element in the lactate dehydrogenase-B gene of the killifish Fundulus heteroclitus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. 154: 70-77. PDF

Fangue, N.A., Richards, J.G., Schulte, P.M. (2009) Do mitochondrial properties explain intraspecific variation in thermal tolerance? Journal of Experimental Biology 212:514-522. PDF


Skinner, L.A.,  Schulte, P.M.,  LaPatra, S.E.,  Balfry, S.K., McKinley, R.S. (2008) Growth and performance of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., following administration of a rhabdovirus DNA vaccine alone or concurrently with an oil-adjuvanted, polyvalent vaccine. Journal of Fish Diseases 31(9): 687-697. PDF

Muttray, A.F., Schulte, P.M. and Baldwin, S.A. (2008) Invertebrate p53-like mRNA isoforms are differentially expressed in mussel haemic neoplasia. Marine Environmental Research 66(4):412-421. PDF

Richards, J.G., Sardella, B.A., and Schulte, P.M. (2008) Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in the common killifish Fundulus heteroclitus during hypoxia exposure.  American Journal of Physiology (Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative). 295(3):R979-990 PDF

Niu, C.J., Rummer, J.L,, Brauner, C.J., and Schulte PM. (2008) Heat shock protein (Hsp70) induced by a mild heat shock slightly moderates plasma osmolarity increases upon salinity transfer in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C 148(4):437-444. PDF

Grant A.A.M., Baker, D., Higgs, D.A., Brauner, C.J. Richards, J.G. Balfry, S.K. and Schulte, P.M. (2008) Effects of dietary canola oil level on growth, fatty acid composition and osmoregulatory ability of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).  Aquaculture. 3-4: 303-312. PDF

Scott, G.R., Baker, D.W., Schulte, P.M. and Wood, C.M. (2008) Physiological and molecular mechanisms of osmoregulatory plasticity in killifish after seawater transfer. Journal of Experimental Biology 211: 2450-9. PDF

Fangue, N.A., Mandic, M., Richards, J.G., and Schulte, P.M. (2008) Swimming performance and energetics as a function of temperature in killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 81(4):389-401. PDF

Singer T.D., Keir K., Hinton, M., Scott, G., McKinley, G R.S. and Schulte, P.M. (2008). Structure and regulation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene in killifish: a comparative genomics approach. Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry D. 3: 172-185. PDF


Huang, S.S.-Y., Fu, C.H.L., Higgs, D.A., Balfry, S.K., Schulte, P.M., Brauner, C.J., (2007) Chronic effects of dietary canola oil level on growth performance, fatty acid composition and ionoregulatory development of spring chinook salmon parr, Oncorhynchus tshawyscha. Aquaculture 274: 109–117 PDF

Bystriansky, J.S., Frick, N.T., Richards, J.G., Schulte, P.M., and Ballantyne, J.S. (2007) Failure to up-regulate gill Na+,K+-ATPase alpha-subunit isoform alpha1b may limit seawater tolerance of land-locked Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 148(2): 332-338. PDF

Schulte, P.M. (2007) Responses to environmental stressors in an estuarine fish: interacting stressors and the impacts of local adaptation. Journal of Thermal Biology 32: 152-161. PDF

Bystriansky, J.S., Frick, N.T., Richards, J.G., Schulte, P.M. and Ballantyne, J.S. (2007) Wild Arctic Char (Salvelinus alpinus) Upregulate Gill Na+,K+-ATPase during Freshwater Migration. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 80: 270-282 PDF

Richards, J.G., Wang, Y.S., Brauner, C.J., Gonzalez, R.J., Patrick, M.L., Schulte, P.M., Choppari-Gomes, A.R., Almeida-Val, V.M. and Val, A.L. (2007). Metabolic and ionoregulatory responses of the Amazonian cichlid, Astronotus ocellatus, to severe hypoxia. Journal of Comparative Physiology [B] 177: 361-74 PDF

Leggatt, R.A., Brauner, C.J., Schulte, P.M. and Iwama, G.K. (2007) Effects of acclimation and incubation temperature on the glutathione antioxidant system in killifish and RTH-149 cells. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 146:317-326. PDF


Todgham, A.E. Iwama, G.K. and Schulte, P.M. (2006) Effects of the natural tidal cycle and artificial temperature cycling on Hsp levels in the tidepool sculpin, Oligocottus maculosus. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 79(6):1033-1045. PDF

Scott, G.R., Schulte, P.M. and Wood, C.M. (2006) Plasticity of osmoregulatory function in the killifish intestine: drinking rates, salt and water transport, and gene expression after freshwater transfer. Journal of Experimental Biology. 209: 4040-4050. PDF

Fangue, N.A., Hofmeister, M, and Schulte, P.M. (2006) Intraspecific Variation in Thermal Tolerance and Heat shock Protein Gene Expression in Common Killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus.  Journal of Experimental Biology 209: 2859-2872 PDF

Bystriansky, J.S., Richards, J.G., Schulte, P.M. and Ballantyne, J.S. (2006) Reciprocal expression of gill Na+,K+-ATPase a-subunit isoforms α1a and α1b during seawater acclimation of three Salmonid fishes which vary in their salinity tolerance. Journal of Experimental Biology 209:1848-1858. PDF

Kales, S., Parks-Dely, J., Schulte, P. M. and Dixon B. (2006) Beta-2-microglobulin gene expression is maintained in rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon kept at low temperatures. Fish and Shellfish Immunology. 21(2):176-186. PDF

Bears, H., Richards, J.G. and Schulte, P.M.  (2006) Arsenic exposure alters hepatic arsenic species composition and stress-mediated gene expression in the common killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Aquatic Toxicology 77(3):257-266. PDF

Wheat, C.W., Watt, W.B., Pollock, D.D. and Schulte, P.M. (2006) Sequences and structures of adaptive variants of Colias phosphoglucose isomerase.  Molecular Biology and Evolution.  23(3):499-512 PDF


Shrimpton, J.M., Patterson, D.A., Richards, J.G., Cooke, S.J., Schulte, P.M., Hinch, S.G. and Farrell, A.P. (2005). Ionoregulatory changes in different populations of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during ocean and river migration. Journal of Experimental Biology. 208: 4069-4078. Featured in “Inside JEB” PDF

Scott, G.R., J.B. Claiborne, S.L. Edwards, P.M. Schulte, and C.M. Wood. (2005). Gene expression after freshwater transfer in gills and opercular epithelia of killifish: insight into divergent mechanisms of ion transport. Journal of Experimental Biology.208:2719-2729. PDF

Scott, G.R., K.R. Keir, and P.M. Schulte. (2005). Effects of spironolactone and RU486 on gene expression and cell proliferation after freshwater transfer in the euryhaline killifish. Journal of Comparative Physiology. 175: 499-510 PDF

Scott, G.R. and Schulte. P.M. (2005). Intraspecific variation in gene expression after seawater transfer in gills of the euryhaline killifish Fundulus heteroclitus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Mol Integr Physiol. 141:176-182. PDF

Todgham, A.E., Schulte, P.M. and Iwama, G.K. (2005). Cross protection in the tidepool sculpin Oligocottus maculosus: a window into the stress tolerance of intertidal fishes. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 78 (2):133-144. PDF


Kraemer, L.D. and Schulte, P.M. (2004) Prior PCB exposure suppresses hypoxia-induced up-regulation of glycolytic enzymes in Fundulus heteroclitus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C (Toxicology). 139:23-29. PDF

Scott, G.R. Rogers, J.T. Richards, J.G. Wood, C.M. and Schulte, P.M. (2004) Intraspecific divergence of ionoregulatory physiology in the euryhaline teleost Fundulus heteroclitus: possible mechanisms of freshwater adaptation. Journal of Experimental Biology. 207:3399-3410. PDF

Schulte, P.M. (2004) Changes in gene expression as biochemical adaptations to environmental change: a tribute to Peter Hochachka. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. 139: 519-529 PDF

Gharbi, K. Semple, J.W., Ferguson. M.M., Schulte, P.M. and Danzmann, R.G. (2004) Linkage arrangement of Na+/K+ ATPase genes in the tetraploid-derived genome of the rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss). Animal Genetics. 35 (4): 321-325. PDF

Scott. G.R., Richards, J.G., Isenring, M.P., Forbush, B. and Schulte, P.M. (2004) Changes in gene expression in gills of the euryhaline killifish Fundulus heteroclitus after abrupt salinity transfer. American Journal of Physiology (Cell Physiology)287(2):C300-309. PDF

Diener, L.C., Schulte, P.M., Dixon, D.G. and Greenberg, B.M. (2004) Optimization of differential display polymerase chain reaction as a bioindicator for the cladoceran, Daphnia magna. Environmental Toxicology 19(3):179-190. PDF

Picard, D.J. and Schulte, P.M.. (2004). Variation in gene expression in response to stress in two populations of Fundulus heteroclitus Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. 137: 205-216. PDF

DeKoning, A.B.L, Picard, D.J. Bond, S.R. and Schulte, P.M. (2004) Stress and inter-population variation in glycolytic enzyme expression in a teleost fish, Fundulus heteroclitus. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 77: 18-26. PDF


Richards, J.G., Semple, J.W, Bystriansky, J.S. and Schulte, P.M. (2003) Na,K-ATPase α-isoform switching in gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during seawater transfer. Journal of Experimental Biology. 206: 4475-4486. PDF

Singer, T.D. Finstad, B. , McCormick, S.D. Wiseman, S.B. Schulte, P.M. and McKinley, R.S. (2003). Interactive effects of cortisol treatment and ambient seawater challenge on gill Na+,K+-ATPase and CFTR expression in two strains of Atlantic salmon smolts. Aquaculture. 222. 15-28. PDF


Basu, N., Todgham, A.E., Ackerman, P.A., Bibeau, M.R., Nakano, K., Schulte, P.M., and Iwama, G.K (2002) Heat shock protein gene families in fish and their functional significance. Gene. 295: 173-183. PDF

Semple, J.W. Green, H.J. and Schulte, P.M. (2002). Molecular cloning and characterization of two Na,K ATPase isoforms in Fundulus heteroclitus. Marine Biotechnology. 4: 512-519. PDF

Singer, T.D., Clements, K.M., Semple, J.W., Schulte, P.M., Bystriansky, J.S., Finstad, B., Fleming, I. and McKinley, R.S. (2002) Seawater tolerance and gene expression in Atlantic salmon smolts: a comparison of hatchery reared farm and native strains. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 59 (1): 125-135. PDF


Rees, B.B. Bowman, J.A.L. and Schulte P.M. (2001) Structure and sequence conservation of a putative hypoxia response element in the lactate dehydrogenase-B gene of Fundulus. Biological Bulletin 200 (3): 247-251. PDF

Schulte, P.M. (2001) Environmental adaptations as windows on molecular evolution. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B. 128: 597-611. PDF

Diener, L. Dixon, G, Greenberg, B., and Schulte, P.M. (2001) Differential Display Polymerase chain reaction and gene expression in Copper-exposed Daphnia magnaEnvironmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment. 10th volume ASTM STP 1403: 181-192. PDF