Biology 332 - Protistology Term 2 - 2006-7

Documentation in essays, reports and papers.

Form of Citations in the text: Please use author and date citations within the text:

The names of authors may be directly cited  in the text as in the following example:
Jones & Smith (1991) found that….
In this case the date of the publication allows you to determine which Jones and Smith entry in the reference list is being refered to. If there are three or more authors, you can say:
Jones et al. (1993) concluded ...
Notice in this case that et al. is a Latin abbreviation for et alia (and others). It should be underlined or italicized.

Sources can also be indirectly cited by putting both the author's names and the publication date in parentheses in your text as in this example:
The position of telomeres in Paramecium macronuclear DNA plasmids is variable (Forney 1992, 1994a, 1994b).
Again, et al. may be used in cases of three or more authors. The notation '1994a, 1994b' is used to denote two different publications with exactly the same authors with names listed inthe same sequence and published in the same year.

If you use a direct quote, then cite the page number as follows:
(Jones & Smith 1994, page 256).

Form of entry in the References or Works Cited page. Every documented papers requires a Works Cited or References page:

Entry for a journal article:
Ann, K.-S. & Nelson, D.L. 1996. A nucleoside diphosphate kinase from Paramecium tetraurelia with protein kinase activity. J. Euk. Microbiol. 43, 365-372.
Always include author's names, date, full title, the name of the journal, volume and page numbers.

Entry for a chapter in a book consisting of chapters by different authors:
Doakes, J.P, &  Schäffer, H.-D. 1993. Control of Cell Movement. In:  Jones, J., ed., Essential Physiology of Protists, Springer & Binney.  pp. 137-195.
Notice that the title of the book and the name of the editor are given as well as the names of the authors and the title of the chapter. In the case of chapters, the publisher of the volume is also listed. This is not usually done with journals.

Web sites

References to web sites should include the full URL. These should be copied and pasted, not retyped as there is too much opportunity for error. Where possible include the name of an author.