Biology 332 - Protistology Term 2 - 2006-2007

Protistology lab. Ciliates II Oligohymenophoran ciliates
Ciliate Tutorial II

*Tetrahymena, oligohymenophoran ciliate: ventral view, lateral view in silver-stained preparations, sections . Make a well label clear drawing of a ventral view from silver-stained preparations, and a section through the buccal cavity. Include in your drawing the following structures, making sure that they are clearly denoted and identified:
General morphology
basal bodies
kineties
primary and secondary meridians (alveolar boundaries)
oral apparatus
buccal overture
buccal cavity
cytopharynx
polykineties
haplokinety
contractile vacuole pore
*Paramecium - oligohymenophoran ciliate. Dorsal view, lateral view, ventral view in silver preparations. Make a well label clear drawing of a dorsal view and a ventral view from silver-stained preparations. See also Section through cell. Include in your drawing the following structures, making sure that they are clearly denoted and identified:
basal bodies,
kineties
anterior suture,
cytoproct
parasomal sac,
trichocyst attachment sites
alveolar boundaries (not visible in all specimens)
vestibulum
buccal overture
buccal cavity
polykineties
contractile vacuole pores

Suctoria - Ephelota and Tokophrya - note general features of the cells including stalk, tentacles and nuclei.

1. Paramecium - Whole mount. These cells were dried in a drop of dilute India Ink. The ink reveals markings on the surface of the cells and fills the buccal cavity. Note buccal overture, vestibulum, buccal cavity, anterior suture, kineties with cortical units, each with a small depression surrounding the locations of the flagella, These small depressions are filled with ink. Not all structures are visible in all cells. Compare these preparations with the silver-stained cells at other microscopes in this row. Slide 1, 10.2 x 102.3

2. Paramecium - Whole mount. These cells were dried in a drop of dilute India Ink. The ink reveals markings on the surface of the cells and fills the buccal cavity. Note buccal overture, vestibulum, buccal cavity, anterior suture, kineties with cortical units, each with a small depression surrounding the locations of the flagella, These small depressions are filled with ink. Not all structures are visible in all cells. Compare these preparations with the silver-stained cells at other microscopes in this row. Slide 3, 9.0 x 98.0

3. Paramecium. Heavily silver stained specimen. Ventral and lateral views, 40x.  Note buccal cavity, buccal overture, anterior suture, cytoproct .  Some alveolar boundaries are silvered. Slide 51 VII 4 109 x 16.

4. Paramecium. silver stained preparation, dorsal, ventral and lateral views (very good). 40x magnification view to get oriented. Ventral, lateral and dorsal (slightly oblique) views. Note vestibulum, buccal overture, buccal cavity, anterior suture, polykineties, contractile vacuole pores. . Slide 2 18.2 x 124.7

5. Paramecium. Silver stained preparation.  100xVentral surface is up. Focus carefully through the specimens. Note very clearly stained basal bodies, parasomal sacs, trichocyst attachment sites (hard to see in this one, easier in more heavily stained specimens), kineties, anterior suture, buccal cavity, buccal overture. Slide 3, 17.0 x 103.2.

6. Paramecium. Lateral  view. Heavily silvered. Note vestibulum, buccal cavity, buccal overture, polykineties. Note food vacuole containing red water color particles attached to cytopharynx. Slide wt fv#2 7 x 113.

7. Paramecium. Silver stained preparation. Heavily stained. Ventral and lateral views. Note basal bodies, parasomal sacs and trichocyst attachment sites. Notice contractile vacuole pore. Please notice that many alveolar boundaries are stained.  Slide 5 51 S VII 1, 12 x 94 label left.

8. Paramecium. Ventral viewHeavily stained. .  Note basal bodies, parasomal sacs, trichocyst attachment sites, buccal overture, polykinety (quadrulus) - at back of buccal cavity.

9. Paramecium, lateral view. Note basal bodies and parasomal sacs, trichocyst attachment sites, Note inside the buccal cavity that the penniculi and part of the quadrulus (polykineties) are visible. slide 1 103 x 12

10. Paramecium. ventral view. Note buccal overture, cytoproct. Very good view of basal bodies, parasomal sacs and trichocyst attachment sites, polykineties in oral apparatus. Notice that there are two types of cortical units, those with one basal body and those with two (toward anterior end of the cell.

11. Paramecium section. Note buccal overture, buccal cavity, polykineties, trichocysts, flagella, food vacuoles, macronucleus (purple), micronuclei. Slide 1 14.5 x 111.2

12. Paramecium section. Section at top right shows both macronucleus and micronucleus. Section in lower part of the field is through a dividing cell. Note duplication of oral apparatus, and a dividing micronucleus just to the left of the macronucleus. Note trichocysts. Slide 2 15.0 x 110.2

13. Tetrahymena vorax. This oligohymenophoran ciliate is stained with silver nitrate to show basal bodies and alveolar boundaries. Ventral/ anterior view. Identify basal bodies, kineties, primary and secondary meridians, polykineties. Haplokinety is just visible at the right edge of the buccal overture. (slide 3 115 x 9.5)

14. Tetrahymena vorax. This oligohymenophoran ciliate is stained with silver nitrate to show basal bodies and alveolar boundaries. Ventral/ anterior view. Identify basal bodies, kineties, primary and secondary meridians, polykineties. Haplokinety is just visible at the right edge of the buccal overture.

15. Tetrahymena pyriformis. Silver stain - general morphology. Basal bodies and alveolar boundaries are stained. Note oral apparatus with polykineties and haplokineties.

16 -18. Tetrahymena vorax. Silver stain - general morphology. Basal bodies and alveolar boundaries (primary and secondary meridians) are stained. Note oral apparatus with polykineties and haplokineties. 

19. - 20.  Tetrahymena sections. Note section through buccal cavity under cross hairs. Identify haplokinety, polykineties, buccal cavity. Does posterior end of the cell lie above/below plane of section? 88 x 11.6

21. Vorticella, a peritrich ciliate. Note coiled stalk, elongated red macronucleus, The coiled stalk contains the spasmoneme, a denser contractile filament. Oral structures are located at the distal end of the cell and are contracted in these specimens.

22. Tetrahymena thermophila. Ventral and lateral views. Note haplokinety, pollykineties, buccal overture, primary and secondary meridians, contractile vacuole pores.

23. Ephelota. A suctorian. Shows tentacles (light green). The cells are attached to the stolon of a colonial hydroid (Obelia). Do not confuse the suctoria with the much larger polyps of the hydroid. Note prey ciliate at pointer.

24. Ephelota. A suctorian. Shows tentacles (light green). The cells are attached to the stolon of a colonial hydroid (Obelia). Do not confuse suctoria with the much larger polyps of the hydroid.